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Age of Arthur, Early Medieval Wargaming, Historical Wargaming

The Age of Arthur. Post-Roman Britain for the Historical Wargamer, Part 10: Campaign Rules

(This originally appeared inWargames Illustrated 163 (April 2001), pp.21-24 )


In Part 9 I set out a scenario generator.  This time I expand upon that into more extended campaign scenarios.  There will be a set of rules for more detailed campaigns, and then three historical scenarios, with specific rules and details: ‘The Eagles have Flown’ (early fifth century); ‘Duke of Battles’ (late fifth century); and ‘The Shadow of the Bear’ (late sixth century).  The historical basis for the assumptions underlying these scenarios is set out in parts 2-7 of this series.  In all of them I have included more data and detail than you might need, so you can pick and chose which bits you want to make use of.  By using the data and playing about with scales, they should be adaptable to all systems, from DBA to WAB, via all other acronyms in between!  I should note that the scenarios are all, in the terms of Nicola Aldridge’s excellent and well-researched recent articles, ‘historical fiction’, but the parameters within which they work are defined by historical and archaeological research, and definitely unhistorical or impossible elements have been removed.

Simple (more or less) Mapless Campaign

For this all you need is an umpire to work out a network of simple geometrical shapes, representing kingdoms or territories, to allow as many players as possible to have common borders with as many other players as possible.  Each campaign year, each player decides which of his neighbours he wishes to attack.  Where two players elect to attack each other they throw dice; whoever scores higher attacks first.  The campaigning cycle between any two players is raid followed by counter-raid.  A player may decide not to declare any opponent, and simply counter-attack anyone who raids him or her.  Obviously, in this case that player goes second.  Each player starts with a prestige score of 10.  At the end of the year, work out everyone’s prestige score, and the difference between it and that of every neighbouring player.  Where the difference between neighbouring players is 30, the lower scoring player may not attack the higher scorer’s territory, even if he is attacked.  If the difference is 50, the lower scorer becomes tributary.  In addition to not being able to attack the higher scorer’s territory, the dominant player may move freely through his territory to attack players beyond.  Tributary status may be cast off in pitched battle, as outlined last time.  If a tributary territory loses a pitched battle whilst attempting to cast off tributary status, that player is eliminated from the campaign, and his territory is added to that of the winner.  The campaign ends when one player has either conquered or reduced to tributary status all of the others.  A tributary player may call upon his overlord to help defend him if he is attacked.  The overlord will send 300 troops, to arrive by move 8.  These troops may help in a counter-raid after the initial raid, as usual.  The overlord gains half of the points if the campaign is successful, but he also loses half of the points if the campaign is unsuccessful.  If, as a result of these calculations, an ‘overlord’ player’s score drops below 30 or 50 in relationship to another ‘cowed’ or tributary neighbour, then that relationship is ended – he loses dominance over that other territory.

More Complex Campaigns

Firstly, you will need a good map.  Absolutely the best map, and that which these rules were designed with and play-tested on, is the Ordnance Survey Map of Roman Britain (4th edition, London 1978).  This is at a scale of 1:625000 and is divided into two sheets (north and south), without any overlay of modern roads places or features.  It is a splendid map but may now be out of print.  If you can get hold of it, though, do.  Otherwise any map of Britain divided into squares 10km x 10km will do; these campaign rules are based upon the map square 10km x 10km.  Cover the map with transparent ‘sticky-back plastic’ (never thought I’d use that phrase in print!) or with a tracing paper overlay to mark borders, help with the plotting of campaigns, and so on.


These rules may be amended or expanded upon, elaborated or stripped down as you see fit.  I think they strike a happy medium between simplicity and detail, whilst keeping historical plausibility uppermost.  The hardest bit is the initial set-up (most of which is done for you in the scenarios); after that it is actually fairly simple to run.  Everything below is designed to be a set of general, if detailed guidelines.  The umpire may expand and improve upon them as desired.

Economic resources

Fundamentally these are based upon the scenario generator, but with each square of the map counting as a ‘card’.  In the scenarios I have rounded the territories of each unit to the nearest map square on the OS map, and worked their resources out on the basis of assigning a value of 3 to each map square.  The highland territories have then been halved, and the values of prosperous regions doubled.  On top of that, to represent the mechanisms of administration, and its increasing efficiency close to political centres, I have added a second figure to this basic total.  I started from the ideas of the scenario generator, counting the square containing the political centre (or ‘seat’) as its value multiplied by 3 (i.e. a row 5 card), the next two rows of squares all around that as their value multiplied by 2 (i.e. row 4); the next two concentric rows of squares as their value multiplied by 1½  (i.e. row 3); and the next two rows as their face value (i.e. row 2).  This would ideally give you a political core area 13 squares by 13 (169 squares).  Rather than actually work out the number of squares in each zone (though do that if you want!), I used averages.  On average, this ‘core area’ adds nearly 5 units per square to the basic total.  Add up the number of squares within a radius of 6 squares from the political seat, deduct it from 169, and multiply the result by 5.  Deduct that from 831 (the total for a properly worked out core area at full extent), and that gives you the figure to be added to the initial total.  It’s easy with a calculator and you only need do it once (unless a player moves his ‘seat’!).  This calculation takes no account of the basic nature of the terrain (highland or ‘prosperous’) but that would make things too complex, especially when borders shift.  All in all it’s fairly crude but seems to work.


The campaign season begins on the Kalends of March (1 March) and ends on the last day of September.  Each month of the campaign season is one move.  The winter season (1 Oct. – 28/9 Feb) is another move, so there are eight moves per year.

 When a campaign is taking place, play it as according to the scenario generator, counting each turn as half a week (eight turns per month).  If several raids are occurring concurrently, play each one separately for a month at a time, to keep things synchronized.

During the winter move a player declares what he will spend his money on over the coming year, and, if he wishes to start campaigning as soon as the season starts, the objectives of any offensive campaigns or raids.  He may also declare a winter campaign (see below)

Also during the winter move, chance cards are drawn (see below).

Changes in income and tax revolts

A player may try to raise taxes.  If so he must declare his intention of so doing during the winter season.  This may be done by demanding a simple extra sum (as a round number).  Otherwise a blanket increase might be tried.  This may be done by a multiplier of 1½ or 2.  All of these things are risky, and might produce rebellions, however!  Before the campaign season begins, each administrative territory within the player’s control must be diced for with results as follows:

 Increase:                                  Score on 1 D6 to produce rebellion

Extra subvention                                 1

Raised ½                                             1,2 or 3

Doubled                                              1,2,3 or 4

On the other hand, if a player spends an entire campaign season without having at least 100 warriors in a territory for a month, that territory will produce no income.

You may lower or remit taxes, which will prevent any rebellion that year; the problem is that if you raise the taxes again you will run the risk of a tax rebellion!


So, what do you spend this income on?

Regular troops cost 1½ units per soldier.  Thus a unit of 100 men costs 150 units per an.

Any warrior you call up for offensive warfare (they will defend their lands for free) costs 1 unit per annum.

A ship carries 30 men and costs 20 units per an. to keep maintained.

To build a ship costs 30 units

All fortified centres require expenditure of 100 units over 10 years to maintain in a state of full defence.  If this is not paid, then the site ceases to offer full defence to its garrison.

Commanders of subordinate territories, who are not regulars, need their bodyguards paying for, and will expect an annual gift of 50 units.

If you ended the previous season’s campaign with a negative score, vis-à-vis another ruler (see below), then you need to spend 10 units per point to restore your standing.  You can’t increase your standing above 0, however.


Regular troops

Regular troops cost more, but they have a number of advantages.  They don’t need to be mustered at the beginning of the campaign season and so can, if need be, strike straight into enemy territory.

They may respond immediately to an enemy raid, moving one square per turn, unless in ships (see below).

They do NOT get 100 troops per turn reinforcements, unless the player decides to call up ‘civilians’.  Any civilians so raised will be of poorer quality (‘Levied Spearmen’ from ‘The Rest’ in the list in Part 8 – perhaps a little worse?)

If regular troops are not paid in full for two years then throw one D6 with the following results:

1,2:      The unit disbands completely

3,4,5:   The unit becomes a warband, with its commander as chief.  The commander is henceforth simply a nobleman, and his troops are his warriors; act as for normal warriors.

6:         The unit offers its services to the nearest neighbouring territory.  The ruler of that territory must pay them immediately.  Otherwise as for 3, 4 or 5.

Once a regular unit is disbanded or turns into a warband, it may never be returned to regular status.

Raising troops for campaigning

If you wish to attack a neighbouring territory declare the size of the army which you wish to raise, and declare where it is to muster, and which territory will be the object of the campaign.  Apart from any ‘standing’ (i.e. bodyguards) or regular troops, it takes half a week to call up 100 men.  Where two territories wish to fight each other, whoever has their army mustered first launches the first raid; the other side may then respond (see ‘the campaigning cycle’ below).  If, when a campaign cycle ends between two players, another player is still attacking the territory of one or other player, troops may be switched to that ‘front’.

Standing troops or regulars may move five squares in half a week within one’s own territory.

If a ruler spends more than a month raising troops, all of his neighbours will be informed of the fact.  When, after a month or more of mustering, these troops set out on campaign, the enemy about to be attacked will be informed that they are heading in his direction, but will not be told which of his territories will be attacked, or (if he only rules one territory) where they will cross the border.

Movement by sea or river

A ship-borne force moves 1D6x2 squares per half-week on the sea or rivers, if it is not plundering.  If it is plundering, then it moves as a land force: one square per half-week.

Recruiting Barbarians

Barbarian bands are at large.  In certain scenarios, some characters may hire these after one month of each campaigning season (the time it takes to find them and negotiate).  They will take 1xD6 weeks to arrive, and will be paid as 1½ times their number, in units.  Alternatively, they may be settled on the land, as federates, at the rate of one square of territory for 100 men, or as independent rulers at the rate of 1 square for 300 men.  A band hired for one campaign season may be contracted to fight in the next year’s campaign season, in which case it will arrive 1D6 weeks after 1 March, if it returned overseas, or immediately if it was settled.

Fighting campaigns.

Essentially, campaigns will be fought using the scenario generator rules printed last time.  An army crosses the border and, for each map square it moves into, takes a playing card from the top of a well-shuffled deck, and turns it over, acting according to the result.  Where, in the scenario generator, the card would be removed from the grid, it is has a line put through it on the map, showing that it cannot support troops.  The defending player similarly, once entitled to react, moves his forces from square to square and, if need be, crosses them off (by removing their resources to safety).  The defending player takes a card from the deck too, but ignores the result unless it is a picture card or a joker.  Certain differences from the generator rules are introduced, however.  When an army crosses the frontier, the first two rows of squares into enemy territory have the effects as per the first row of the scenario generator ‘grid’, the second two rows have effects as according to the second row of the scenario generator grid, the third two rows according to the third row of the generator grid, and so on.  However, the square where the enemy political seat is always counts as a square on the 5th row of the grid, no matter how near the frontier it is.  When battles occur you can use the actual terrain from the map.

You may modify the plunder tally according to the wealth of the attacked region (highland or prosperous: see the scenarios) if you wish.  You may also record on the map the score for that square, the first time a card is turned over when it is campaigned in, and keep that all subsequent years.  This will probably generate profitable campaigning routes, reflecting actual practice.

An attacker’s plunder tally is added to his revenue for that year; it is also deducted from his opponent’s revenue as is the total value of any squares ‘burnt’ (i.e. black cards) by the attacker.

Non-Wargamed Battles

If you think the forces engaged are too small or you can’t be bothered to fight the wargame for whatever other reason (perhaps fighting the campaign as a strategic and political map wargame rather than to generate tabletop encounters), both sides throw 1D6 and multiply the result by the number of troops in their army.  Whoever’s score is highest wins.  The losers lose the difference between the scores in casualties, and the winners lose 1/3 of that.  If, however, neither side’s score is more than half as high again as its opponents’, the battle is not decisive.  The losing side must withdraw but may take half of its plunder with it.  If the winners’ score is half as high again as the losers’ (or more) the battle is decisive, and the losers lose all of their plunder.  If the scores are the same, there is no result.  The battle may be resumed the next day or the players may come to an agreement, perhaps involving a return of a part of the attackers’ plunder.

The result of a campaign

To assess the result of a raid, the attacking player calculates his score as usual (Scenario Generator, in Part 9, rule 10: Who wins?).  The defending player deducts the total value of all of the cards plundered or burnt by the attacker (you may need to keep a tally of these) and deducts that from the revenue generated by the territory (civitas) raided, and divides that by ten.  Calculate the difference as usual.

Map Modifications

With the use of a map, a player may decide to block the crossing point of a river, if one exists within the map square where he is (instead of relying on a picture card to provide this scenario), and force the opposing player either to try to fight a way across or make a detour.


A player may ‘hole up’ in a fortification (with all or just a part of his forces) and force the opposing side to besiege him.  If the attacker tries to storm the place either fight it out as a wargame, or use the following system.  If the place is not properly fortified (see expenditure, above) then calculate the result as for a non-wargamed battle (see above), but with the defenders adding 1 to their D6.  If the place is properly fortified, then the defenders double their die throw.

If the attackers do not attack, they settle down to blockade the place.  Things now get a bit more complex.  They must detach 100 men to forage in order to keep the besieging force supplied.  The foragers act as though they are a raiding force, moving into a different square, adjacent to that in which the besieged fortification is, every turn.  After 8 turns at most (i.e. a month), they will have exhausted the surrounding squares and need to forage further afield.  It takes them, as usual, a turn to move a square on the map.  For each turn that the foraging force is away the besieging force will have to consume its plunder or suffer attrition.  Of course, the besieger may split off several foraging parties (each of 100 men at least), at intervals, to ensure continuous incoming supplies, but if he is not careful he might expose himself to attack by the besieged force.  Enemy forces might also attack foraging parties.  The besieger may decide to attack the besieged place at any point if the odds change, or if he simply gets bored of waiting.

Where the besieged do march out to fight, either fight the ensuing wargame or play it as above, with die throws.

After eight turns of siege, the defender will lose 10% of his troops through attrition (starvation and desertion) per turn.

Sieges are also pestilential places.  A besieged force runs the risk of an outbreak of pestilence after four turns (a fortnight) of siege on the score of 6 on 1 D6.  This is then increased by one each subsequent turn.  If disease breaks out, throw 2 D10, giving the percentage of the besieged killed off by the pestilence, and 1 D6 for the number of turns the outbreak lasts.

Besiegers run the risk of disease after eight turns (a month), on the same throws as above, and with the same results.

If a place is carried by assault whilst it is suffering from disease, the attackers will catch the disease on a score of 3, 4, 5 or 6 on 1 D6.

If and when the defenders are reduced to less than 10% of the attackers and fewer than 50 men, the place is taken, whether or not the attacker declares an attempt to storm the place.

Reinforcements may break into a besieged place and add to the defending total, if the besieging force numbers fewer than 300 men.

The campaigning cycle

All warfare between any two players ends, for the year, when both have raided each other’s territory.  This is the annual campaigning cycle: raid and counter-raid.

The onset of winter

If an army is still in the field on 1 October it must return to its home territory by the most direct route.  It may not plunder and it either consumes its plunder or suffers attrition as according to the scenario generator.

Campaigning in winter

This is a high-risk strategy indeed.  You must have reserves, at the end of the campaigning year, equivalent in units to the number of men you wish to take on campaign (regular/standing troops or not).  There is no normal plunder to be had but each map square you move through counts as a row 3 card in the scenario generator; once beyond four squares’ depth into enemy territory they all count as row 4 cards.  Only picture cards and jokers apply (here including those which give extra loot).  The defending player may not recruit troops for his army.  If, by the end of eight turns, you have not either driven the opposing player from his seat, captured the administrative seat of a territory, or forced the defending player to pay tribute, then you must return home losing attrition as according to the scenario generator.

The end of the year

As with the simple campaign, at the end of the campaign season, calculate the difference between the scores of all players who have been at war at all.  Calculate each player’s prestige.  These scores all run over into the next year’s campaigning.

When a player, at the end of the year stands at –30 in his relationship with a neighbouring player, he may not launch an offensive campaign into that player’s territory – he is cowed.  He also loses control of territory (see below).

If, at the beginning of a year, a ruler, who has not hitherto been in a warlike relationship with a neighbour, nevertheless has a prestige tally 50 higher than him then that neighbour may not attack him.  He is cowed.  If he attacks that neighbour with 300 men or more the latter will immediately offer to pay tribute of 100 units.  If he does this for two consecutive years, the neighbour becomes tributary.

Tributary status

If a player ends the year with his relationship with a neighbour at –50 then he loses no more territory but becomes a tributary ruler, with results as for the simple campaign rules.  A tributary ruler pays his overlord 100 units per year in tribute, but the overlord must send an army of at least 300 men into the tributary territory to receive it.  If he fails to do this, not only does he not receive the tribute; the tributary relationship is ended.

Otherwise, tributary status can be ended by major pitched battle, as with the simple campaign rules.  To raise a large army to retain control over a tributary territory will be expensive but if successful the rewards will be huge.  You may decide the risk is not worth it, however.  If so, however, you will lose prestige so that the difference in prestige points between you and the tributary king is split, so that the relationship is reset at zero (e.g.: a dominant ruler with a score of 100 is faced by revolt by a tributary ruler with a prestige rating of 25 –  a difference of 75; if the dominant ruler does not meet the challenge, the difference is split so their scores are the same – i.e. they both have 63 (62.5 rounded up)).  The same happens if a player is simply unable to defeat the rebellion during that campaigning season.  This will have a knock on effect in your relationship with other kings, but this seems to have been how it worked in the early middle ages.  Of course, if the tributary king loses, then he is exiled (if he survives the battle) replaced as ruler by an appointee of the victor, and the victor adds all of the revenue from his territory to his annual income.  Since his territory is now expanded, this may increase the size of his ‘political core’ and increase his revenue further.

A tributary player who is attacked by another aggressor may call upon his overlord for help.  The overlord will decide how many troops to send to his aid (these will cost money as for offensive campaigns if not raised from ‘standing’ or regular troops).  His score will go up or down according to the result of the campaign, as set out in the ‘simple’ rules, above.  Remember that this may have knock on effects on his relationship with other rulers.  If he decides not to help, or cannot afford to, then his prestige tally drops by 10.

Changes of territorial allegiance

When a player, at the end of the year stands at –20 in his relationship with a neighbouring player, he loses territory one square deep all along their border .  He loses territory to the depth of a further square for every further 10 points his score drops in relationship to that neighbour.  This represents local leaders who either see the way the wind is blowing and throw in their lot with the neighbouring ruler, or people who seize local power by claiming the support of the apparently more powerful neighbour.  These events will affect revenue thus: each square counts as 3 units of revenue (1½ if  highland territory; 6 if a prosperous one); if it is within 6 squares of the player’s seat it counts as a further 5 units of revenue. 

Conquest of territory

A player conquers a territory by occupying its administrative centre with at least 100 men holding it throughout the remainder of the campaign season.  Any enemy warriors within the territory at the end of the campaign season will withdraw to the nearest friendly territory.  The successful aggressor gains all the revenue from the territory (minus, for that year, the value of any squares burnt during the campaign).

Debatable land

When a ruler’s territory shrinks because of his low standing vis-à-vis a neighbour, this may leave some areas out of touch, via land, with the rest of his territory.  All territories thus separated by the sea from the rest of the realm become ‘debatable’.  They generate no revenue for anyone.  If a ‘debatable land’ exceeds 4×4 squares in extent, it becomes a new political unit, with its own ruler (who does collect revenue from it) on the score of 5 or 6 on 1D6 (on a score of 1-4, the territory remains debatable; throw again next year).  A player may retain control of what would otherwise be debatable land by garrisoning it with 100 men or more (though he or she will have to have ships to transport them there if s/he does not wish to have to cross enemy territory and start fighting).  In the year after that in which land becomes debatable, any other neighbouring player may also garrison the territory and claim it for himself.  Where 2 players have forces in ‘debatable land’ it will generate no revenue until one or other is driven out.

Death and succession

With taxation in decline, death was the one certainty in early medieval life.  If not killed in battle, murdered or carried off by a disease, when a player’s character reaches 50 he will die during the winter move on the score of 6 on 1D6; once he reaches 60, he will die during winter on the score of 5 or 6; if he survives to 70, he will die during the winter on the score of 4, 5 or 6; once at 75 this goes up to 3, 4, 5 or 6; at 80, 2,3,4,5 or 6.  All characters die at 85.  Do let me know if any player in your campaigns lives that long!

If a non-Roman character has a son (or grandson), he will succeed to his position.  If not, throw 1D6 for each character ruling one of the player’s territories or commanding one of his armies.  Whichever scores the highest takes the dead character’s title.  Any character who scored more than 2 lower than the ‘winner’s’ score becomes loyal.  The rest rebel and declare their territory, or that in which their army is, independent.  If the son or grandson is under 15, throw 1D6 for each character commanding a territory or armed force; the highest scorer becomes regent.  If there is a tie, then there will be civil war.  When the king comes of age at 15, the regent will rebel on a score of 5 or 6, but all commanders will support the new king.

When a Roman player dies, if he has an adult son, he will succeed peacefully on a score of 4,5 or 6 on 1D6.  Otherwise follow these guidelines: if there is an army in the field, it will elect its commander to be the new leader.  If the commander is the dead ruler’s son, all the better!  Otherwise throw 1D6.  On a score of 3, 4, 5 or 6 the commanders of territories and units meet and elect a new ruler (choose one by dice) without acrimony.  On a score of 1 or 2, act as for succession in a non-Roman territory where there is no natural succession.

Chance Cards

These are drawn each winter, and are specific to each scenario.


Subordinate territories will rebel in several situations.  They may do so as a result of a chance card.  They may also rebel if their ruler is not paid, if they are taxed heavily, or during a disputed succession (for all of which, see above).  When a territory rebels, all non-regular troops therein join the rebellion.  Regulars join on a score of 4,5 or 6 on 1D6.  No revenue is generated for the player rebelled against until the rebellion is quashed.  This may be done in the same way as conquering a territory.  Rebels may either declare themselves independent or declare allegiance to a neighbouring ruler (who will get the revenue from the territory).  The umpire decides which.  Subordinate territories which are raided in 2 consecutive years without the raiders being defeated (either in battle or by being driven off with a lower score than the defenders) will rebel.  Territories which suffer 2 years of famine (generated by chance cards) and are taxed will also rebel.  However, no rebellion will take place, whatever else happens, if taxes are lowered (as above).


Each player starts with a prestige score of 10.  This is added to according to the results of campaigns (see last time).  A player also scores 10 prestige points for achieving a personal goal (see the different scenarios).

Example (from Scenario 1: The Eagles Have Flown – Part 11):

On 1 March 413, Gerontius of the Cornovii moved the 300 men of his bodyguard up the old road from Viroconium (Wroxeter) towards Deva (Chester) and spent six weeks hard campaigning in the civitas of the Deceangli, part of the territory of Cunedda.  Cunedda’s lieutenant Avitoris raised an army of 900 men and gave chase, but, with one minor slip, when he was forced to detour through harried territory as a result of a flooded ford, Gerontius made it back across the border with a final plunder tally of 27 and a prestige tally of 6.  Deducting 3 (the size of his army divided by 10) gives 24, and dividing this by 10, rounding down, gave a plunder profit of 2.  Adding the prestige score gave Gerontius a final score of 8.  Cunedda deducted 36 (the total value of the squares plundered and burnt by Gerontius) from the revenue of the Deceangli (only 54 – it’s a poor territory) giving 18.  Dividing this by 10 and rounding the result gave 2.  Gerontius was now +6 in his relationship with Cunedda, and with his revenue increased by 24 units.  Cunedda’s revenue was reduced by 36.  This was a successful raid for the Cornovii, but the year was not over yet.  Cunedda moved to join Avitoris on Gerontius’ border, with his teulu of 300 cavalry.

At the beginning of May, after raising 200 extra men, Cunedda crossed into Cornovii territory and headed straight down the Roman road through Mediolanum (Whitchurch) towards Gerontius’ seat at Viroconium.  However once there, his army of 600 men was dispersed by a storm, reducing his force to 400, precisely half the 800 assembled by Gerontius who, since Cunedda had reached his seat (counts as row 5), was now allowed to respond, and marched out to attack.  Cunedda had no choice but to beat a hasty retreat into his own civitas of the Ordovices, reaching Lavobrinta (Forden Gaer) at the beginning of June, with a pitiful plunder tally of 17.  Deducting 4 (his final army size divided by 10) gave 13 (added to his revenue), producing a plunder profit of 1 (13 divided by 10, rounded down), which was also his score for the raid, as he had acquired no extra prestige points.  Gerontius’ revenue was reduced by 13 but his score for that raid was 25 (267 (the revenue of the Cornovii) – 13 (Cunedda’s plunder tally), giving 254, which, divided by 10 and rounded, gives 25).  The difference between the two was 24 in Gerontius’ favour.

At this point, the year’s campaigning ended.  Gerontius’ overall revenue was up by 11 units; Cunedda’s was down by 23 and, as he had to spend 200 units on the extra warriors he raised for offensive campaigning, only his annual subsidy from the Romans kept him ‘in the black’.  More to the point, Gerontius ended this successful year with his standing at +30 in relationship to Cunedda.  Another year like this would reduce Cunedda to a tributary of Gerontius.  As it was, he lost territory two squares deep all along his border with Gerontius, as local leaders threw in their lot with the Cornovii.  This meant that he lost Lavobrinta, Condate (Northwich) and, above all, Deva.  With his triumphal entry into the latter in September, Gerontius had achieved one of his personal goals, adding 10 to his prestige.  All Cunedda’s lands north of the Dee became ‘debatable’, and Gerontius sent his son Maxentius to occupy them, too, in 414.  Cunedda’s rashness was his downfall.  He could have taken time to raise a larger army, and resisted the temptation to strike straight for Gerontius’ capital.  He was also very unlucky with the cards…

 As usual, if you have any thoughts on or responses to these rules, please get in touch.



2 thoughts on “The Age of Arthur. Post-Roman Britain for the Historical Wargamer, Part 10: Campaign Rules

  1. I just wanted to thank you for putting these interesting articles online. I missed them when published because I’d rather lost interest in the glossies. Having just waded through Robin Fleming’s ‘Britain after Rome’, it seems the fluffy view of ‘the birth of modern Europe’ is still alive and well 30 years after I had THE WORLD OF LATE ANTIQUITY banged into my head at university.

    Posted by ian drury | May 29, 2011, 12:04 pm
    • Thanks. I think I remember enjoying your articles back in the day. I gave up on the glossies too, but more recently, when they all turned into glorified ad campaigns. The ‘fluffy view’ (I’m not very sure what that is) is I alive and well and certainly has its problems, but is still better, and more socio-politically responsible, than its dimmer-witted alternatives, peddled by the likes of P. Heather and B. Ward-Perkins.

      Posted by Historian on the Edge | May 29, 2011, 1:35 pm
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